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Research & Publications

Our research focuses on key concepts in organization improvement.

QAR: Enhancing Comprehension and Test Taking Across the Grades

Raphael, T. E., & Au, K. H. (2005). QAR: Enhancing Comprehension and Test Taking across Grades and Content Areas. Reading Teacher, 59(3), 206–221.

Promoting high levels of literacy for all children is a core responsibility for today's teachers. In this article, the potential of Question Answer Relationships (QAR) for helping teachers guide all students to higher levels of literacy is described. This description is set within the current instructional and assessment context, with a particular focus on what it means to teach to high levels of literacy and why it is especially important to ensure that such instructional activities reach all students. Read Full Article »

Using Workshop Approaches to Support the Literacy Development of ELLs

Au, K. H., & Raphael, T.E. (2011). Using Workshop Approaches to Support the Literacy Development of ELLs. In G. Li & P. A. Edwards (Eds.), Best Practices in ELL Instruction (pp. 207-221). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

This chapter discusses how workshop approaches can be beneficial to English language learners (ELLs), it presents key concepts of authenticity underlying workshop approaches, and it provide practical classroom examples of routines from the writers' workshop and readers' workshop. Available for Purchase »

Balanced Literacy Instruction: A Teacher's Resource Book

Au, K. H., Carroll, J. H., & Scheu, J. A. (2001). Balanced literacy instruction: a teacher’s resource book. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordan Publishers.

Here are 90+ topics presented as brief articles, many featuring the thinking of leading experts. They are presented so that busy teachers can read them in one sitting. 85 percent of the pieces are practical in nature, while the other 15 percent feature the thinking of leading authorities in the field from Lev Vygotsky to Donald Graves to Violet Harris, among many others. Available for Purchase »

Multicultural Issues and Literacy Achievement (Literacy Teaching Series)

Au, K. H. (2006). Multicultural issues and literacy achievement. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

This book is a sequel to the author's earlier volume entitled, Literacy Instruction in Multicultural Settings. In addition to extensive updating of earlier material, this book extends the content coverage to include issues of power, attitudes, and systemic change through the application of discourse theory and critical theory. In doing so, however, the author has tried to maintain the brevity, stylistic clarity, and classroom focus of the earlier volume.
Available for Purchase »

QAR Now: A Powerful and Practical Framework That Develops Comprehension and Higher-Level Thinking in All Students

Raphael, T. E., Highfield, K., & Au, K. H. (2006). QAR now: question answer relationships. New York, NY: Scholastic.

QAR, Question Answer Relationship, is a powerful, research-based approach for improving reading comprehension that has been helping students become better readers for more than 20 years. Now, QAR’s creator, Taffy Raphael and coauthors Kathy Au and Kathy Highfield, have written a comprehensive guide that reflects on two decades of classroom application and expands on the original thinking behind QAR. Available for Purchase »

QAR Comprehension Lessons: Grades 4-5: 16 Lessons With Text Passages That Use Question Answer Relationships to Make Reading Strategies Concrete for All Students

Pardo, L., Raphael, T., & Au, K. H. (2011). QAR comprehension lessons, grades 4-5. New York, NY: Scholastic.

A research-based approach for improving comprehension, Question Answer Relationships (QAR) has been helping students achieve in reading for more than 20 years. This book of lessons for teaching QAR in grades 4–5 introduces students to the QAR language and shows them how to answer questions in key comprehension areas—from summarizing to making inferences. Each lesson includes a step-by-step teaching guide, an engaging nonfiction article, poem, or story to model the target QAR strategy, and an assessment activity. Includes a CD with strategy mini-posters, assessment tools, and whiteboard-ready passages for every lesson. Available for Purchase »

QAR Comprehension Lessons: Grades 6-8: 16 Lessons With Text Passages That Use Question Answer Relationships to Make Reading Strategies Concrete for All Students

Pardo, L., Raphael, T., & Au, K. H. (2011). QAR comprehension lessons, grades 6-8. New York, NY: Scholastic.

This book of lessons for teaching QAR in grades 6-8 introduces students to the QAR language and shows them how to answer questions in key comprehension areas—from determining importance to monitoring understanding. Each lesson includes a step-by-step teaching guide, an engaging nonfiction article, poem, or story to model the target QAR strategy, and an assessment activity. A CD is included with strategy mini-posters, assessment tools, and whiteboard-ready passages for every lesson. Available for Purchase »

QAR Comprehension Lessons: Grades 2-3: 16 Lessons With Text Passages That Use Question Answer Relationships to Make Reading Strategies Concrete for All Students

Scheu, J. A., Au, K. H., & Raphael. (2011). QAR comprehension lessons, grades 2-3. New York, NY: Scholastic.

This book of lessons for teaching QAR in grades 2–3 introduces students to the QAR language and shows them how to answer questions in key comprehension areas—from predicting to asking questions. Each lesson includes a step-by-step teaching guide, an engaging nonfiction article, poem, or story to model the target QAR strategy, and an assessment activity. A CD is included with strategy mini-posters, assessment tools, and whiteboard-ready passages for every lesson. Available for Purchase »

QAR for the Early Primary Grades: A Read-Aloud Program to Improve Comprehension [Kindle Edition]

Strode, E. V., Au, K. H., Corsi, K., & Raphael, T. E. (2012). QAR for the Early Primary Grades: A Read-Aloud Program to Improve Comprehension (1 edition.). BookBaby.

In this resource, Taffy Raphael, Ph. D., creator of Question-Answer Relationships (QAR), makes comprehension strategies that are normally reserved for upper elementary students accessible to younger children. QAR for the Early Primary Grades provides 15 read-aloud lessons based on well-known picture books to teach children to comprehend stories and informational text. The lessons actively engage children in higher-level thinking. Available for Purchase »